Tuesday, August 3, 2021
Faculty of Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Heat transfer laboratory
Course type: compulsory, required
 Prerequisites: heat transfer course
This course is mainly designed for practical training of heat transfer fundamentals and heat transfer equipment.
The objective of this course is to help the students to carry out experiments with facilities as follow:
  • Conduction heat transfer is solid materials
  • Radiative heat transfer
  • Forced and free convection heat transfer
  • Concentric pipe heat exchanger
  • Shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Coil and jacket heat exchanger
It should be noted that there are more facilities available which are not included in the course:
  • Plate heat exchanger
  • Boiling and condensation heat transfer
  • Thermal conductivity measurement of fluids
  • Double pipe heat exchanger
Apparatus for measuring Thermal conductivity of solid materials
This equipment consists of two electrically heated modules mounted on a bench support frame. One module contains a cylindrical metal bar arrangement for a variety of linear conduction experiments while the other consists of a disc for radial conduction experiment. Both test modules are equipped with an array of temperature sensors. Cooling water, to be supplied from a standard laboratory tap is fed to one side of the test pieces in order to maintain a steady temperature gradient.
The instrumentation provided permits accurate measurement of temperature and power supply. Fast response temperature probes with a resolution of 0.1°C are used. The power control circuit provides a continuously variable electrical output of 0-100 Watts.

The test modules are designed to minimize errors due to true three-dimensional heat transfer. The basic principles of conduction can be taught without knowledge of radiation or convective heat transfer. The linear test piece is supplied with interchangeable samples of conductors and insulators to demonstrate the effects of area, conductivity and series combinations. Contact resistance may also be investigated, and the important features of unsteady state conditions may be demonstrated.
The equipment comprises two heat-conducting specimens, a multi-section bar for the examination of linear conduction and a metal disc for radial conduction. A control panel provides electrical and power digital for display heaters in the specimens as well as the selector switch for data acquisition system
A small flow of cooling water provides a heat sink at the end of the conducting path in each specimen.
Apparatus for radiative heat transfer measurement
This apparatus consists of radiometer, heat source, two black surfaces, one polished surface, one dull surface, some thermocouples to measure temperature of surfaces
The main objects of this experiment are:
  • Effect of distance on the heat flux
  • Investigation of Stefan’s Boltzmann law of heat radiation
  • Measuring emissivity of different surfaces
  • Effect of geometry on radiative heat absorption
  • Effect of material on surface temperature and radiation.
Apparatus for forced and free convection
This apparatus consists of a rectangular vertical duct in which the flat surface, plate fins and cylinder fins surface are mounted. There is a variable speed blower on the top of the duct to create forced convection. The air velocity is measured by an anemometer installed on the duct wall. Inlet air temperature, exchanger surface temperature and temperature distribution along the fins are measured by thermometer.

Concentric heat exchanger:
This apparatus consists of two concentric pipes, water reservoir, pump, heater, thermometers and cold and hot water rotameters. This experiment is designed to investigate the heat transfer in cocurrent and counter current flow with emphasis on temperature profile, logarithmic mean temperature difference, overall heat transfer coefficient and efficiency.


  Shell and tube heat exchanger
This apparatus consists of 7 stainless steel pipes which are installed in parallel inside a transparent acrylic shell. The hot water passes through the tubes and cold water passes through the shell. A temperature controller maintain the hot water temperature on a desired value. The inlet and outlet temperature are measured by means of some thermocouples.
This experiment is designed to investigate indirect heating and cooling phenomenon, energy balance of exchanger, overall efficiency for different flowrates, effect of cocurrent and countercurrent flow on heat transfer and efficiency, determination of overall heat transfer coefficient by means of logarithmic mean temperature difference.

Coil and jacket heat exchanger
This apparatus consists of a jacketed tank with an internal coil and mixer. The glassy jacket makes it possible to heat the outer surface of tank wall by a hot water. The metallic coil is used to heat the tank fluid indirectly. The mixer which is variable speed is used to mix the water in tank.
This experiment is designed to investigate indirect heating and cooling phenomenon, steady and unsteady behavior of stirred tank heating, overall heat transfer coefficient in steady and unsteady condition, overall energy balance, efficiency calculation and effect of mixing on heat transfer.

Unit operations laboratory
Course type: compulsory, required
Prerequisites: unit operations 2, passed or …
This course is designed to make the senior student familiar with pilot scale process equipment and to make them use of core courses they have passed through 4 years of education. These process equipment are:
  • Cooling tower
  • Spray dryer
  • Packed column liquid-liquid extractor
  • RDC liquid-liquid extractor
  • Solid-liquid extractor (leaching)
  • Trayed distillation column
  • Rotary dryer
  • Packed column absorber
It should be noted that there are more facilities available which are not included in the course:
  • CSTR reactors in series
  • Packed distillation column
  • Sedimentation apparatus
  • Multi-effect evaporator
Cooling tower:
This apparatus consists of a column filled with flat packing, cold water reservoir, makeup water reservoir, electrical heater, pump, air blower, 6 thermocouples and two water manometers. The warm water is poured from top on the packing and got cold through counter current contact with air.
This experiment is designed to explore different aspects of a cooling tower and different operating conditions. It is also expected that student gain knowledge and experience about psychometric chart, simultaneous heat and mass transfer, pressure drop inside cooling a tower.

Spray dryer:
This apparatus consists of main chamber, solid gas separator cyclone, two blowers, air-gas heat exchanger, oil pump, feed pump, burner, atomizer and some thermocouples. The inlet air is heated by combustion gas in heat exchanger and enter the main chamber. After heating to a desired value feeding is started. The atomizer which is rotating disc create very fine droplets. The dried product is conveyed to the cyclone and separated from air.
This experiment is designed to explore the operation of spray driers and affecting parameters on product specifications such as residual solvent, required drying temperature, and particle size distribution.

Packed column liquid-liquid extractor:
This apparatus consists of a column which is filled with packing, feed tank, feed recycle tank, solvent tank, water reflux tank, two pumps, and a distillation column. This experiment is designed to extract propionic acid from trichloroethylene by water. It is expected that through this separation, students find hands on different aspects of liquid-liquid extraction experiment such as feed to solvent flowrates ration, distribution coefficient of materials, and mass transfer coefficient.

RDC liquid-liquid extraction:
This apparatus consists of a glassy column, six-blade mixers, feed tank, solvent tank, product holding tank, and two pumps. The objects of this experiment are completely similar to those of packed column liquid-liquid extraction experiment. At the end the results will be compared.

Solid-liquid extraction (Leaching):
This apparatus consists of two stainless steel tanks, two electrical heaters, pump, glassy column, thermometer, and a distillation column. In this experiment the oilseeds, which are held in a bag, are contacted with a solvent. The solvent extract the oil from the seeds; then the solvent and oil are separated in a distillation column. This experiment is done in steady and unsteady state.
Different aspects of a solid-liquid extraction unit including the equipment and operational parameters are the object of this experiment.

Trayed distillation column:
Tis apparatus consists of a glassy column, feed tank, product holdup tank, a reboiler, and a condenser. The equipment is facilitated with one sampling valve and one thermocouple on each tray. The object of this experiment is to measure the composition of distilled product and distillation residue versus time and clarify the effect of reflux ratio on product recovery.

Rotary dryer:
This apparatus consists of a cylindrical container, air blower, electrical air heater, feed tank and a cyclone. In this apparatus hot air dries a wet solid. In this apparatus container slope, rotation speed and feeding rate are manually set. This experiment is designed for exploring the effects of operational parameters and applying the theoretical concepts to evaluate the system mathematically.

Packed column adsorption:
This apparatus consists of a glassy packed column, a pump and a feed tank. In this experiment a gas mixture containing N2 and CO2 enters the column upward and contact with down flowing solvent.
In physical absorption water is used as the solvent and in chemical absorption caustic is used as the solvent. This experiment is designed to make students familiar with operation of absorption columns and to clarify the effect of operational parameters such as length and number of transfer units, and overall mass transfer coefficient.

Chemical process control laboratory
Course type: compulsory, required
Prerequisites: chemical process control
This course is designed to apply knowledge that students learned in chemical process control course. The equipment are: temperature control apparatus, pH control apparatus, pressure control apparatus, and level and flow control apparatus.

Temperature control apparatus

In this apparatus the temperature of warm water is set by controlling the flow of cold water. The purpose of this experiment are to makes the students familiar with closed loop temperature control system, to calibrate instruments, to define system transfer function, characterization of transfer function and to tune the parameters of controller.

pH control apparatus
In this experiment a stream of caustic soda enters to the tank of apparatus and is neutralized with an acid stream. The purpose of this experiment is to control the tank pH in different modes of open loop (manual control) and closed loop (P, PI, and PID controller). This experiment is designed to assess the characteristics of controller type and response to change in set point.

Pressure control apparatus
The purpose of this experiment is to makes the students familiar with different parts of an open loop and closed loop pressure control system. In this experiment the optimum condition of control is defined by changing the controller parameters. The response of system is investigated by a step change in set point and disturbance in system.

Level and flow control apparatus
The purpose of this experiment is to makes the students familiar with different parts of level and flow control system, to calibrate instruments, to define system transfer function, to characterize transfer function, to investigate the open loop, closed loop and on/off control system and to tune the parameters of controller.

Fluid mechanics laboratory
Course type: compulsory, required
Prerequisites: fluid mechanics
The Fluid Mechanics Laboratory is a substantial part of fluid mechanics course and is constructed to complement the lecture portion of the course. The labs are designed to provide the student with a physical understanding of the fundamental principles and basic equations of fluid mechanics. This understanding is gained through the application of “text book” concepts and equations to real problems. The equipment of this laboratory are: pipe, valves and joint friction apparatus, hydrostatic forces apparatus, fluidized bed apparatus, water jet apparatus, air flow apparatus, pumps in parallel and series configuration, and drag force measurement apparatus.

The unit has been designed for students to study on the fluid friction head losses of an incompressible fluid flow of an incompressible .The unit is se lf-contained supplied with facilities for students to study the friction losses on smooth-bore pipes of various diameters and an artificially roughened pipe. In addition to the study of losses in straight pipes, a wide range of accessories are also provided including 90 ̊ bend elbow and 45 ̊ elbow and sudden contraction and enlargement, inline strainer, various valves(globe and gate valve ) and flow meters(venture meter and orifice meter).

Hydrostatic forces apparatus
This apparatus consists of two concentric transparent cylinder that rotates around its axis. It consists of an annular sector of solid material attached to a balance beam. When the device is properly balanced the face of the sector that is not attached to the beam is directly below (coplanar) with the pivot axis. The solid sector and the balance beam is supported above a tank of water.

The apparatus is designed to facilitate the study of flow through fixed and fluidized beds of solid particles. There is Provision for the study of air systems in the unit to demonstrate the difference between 'aggregative' and 'particulate' fluidized bed characteristics. Students can readily observe the important phenomenon of 'bubbling’. Upward flow of fluid through a bed of particles is a naturally occurring phenomenon, for example the movement of ground water. Industrial applications include ion-exchange, extraction of soluble components from raw materials and other chemical processes

Impact of a jet Apparatus
By directly measuring the force exerted on the plates by the water jet, this apparatus allows the student to experimentally study the theoretical momentum laws used to solve jet impact problems.
An upper weigh beam is pivoted on precision bearings at one end and carries along its length the fixed test plate. The beam jockey and a scale are used to measure the jet force. An adjustable spring supports the lever and is used for setting the initial zero level of the beam. A hanging tally weight on the end of the beam is used to return the beam to the horizontal each time a reading is required.
A high velocity jet is produced by the vertical tapered nozzle. For clear observation, both nozzle and test plate are contained in a glass cylinder. The apparatus is leveled for test using the plastic screwed ball feet provided on the base legs.
A drain tube, in the base of the cylinder, is used to direct the water to the bench, where the flow can be measured.

This self-contained unit, providing a long, smooth-walled pipe connected to the suction inlet of a centrifugal fan, is used to demonstrate how to measure important characteristics of industrial air distribution systems. It can also show how certain basic principles of fluid mechanics may be applied to analyze flow in ducts and jets

In this apparatus consists of two centrifuge pump, one with constant rpm and one with variable rpm, flow meter, pressure gauge, water reservoir and electrical current meter. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the characteristic curve of each pump and to assess the performance of two pumps is parallel and series configuration. In each experiment water flow rate, pressure, the rpm of variable speed pump and the electrical current of variable rpm pump are recorded.

Drag force measurement apparatus
This apparatus consists of a transparent duct, air blower, air regulating valve, cylindrical and flat barrier, manometer, pitot tube and a cylinder with a small hole on it. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the drag force and drag coefficient. By using the cylinder with one hole the pressure distribution around a cylinder can be measured.



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